Battery history

The electric cell was built in Ctesiphon in ancient Iran between 250 BC and 224 AD. These batteries are known as Baghdad batteries.
General Electric Company has examined the age of these batteries by radiocarbon dating method and found that these batteries date back to 200 BC. The cages are made of an earthenware jar, a copper container containing an electrolyte solution such as lemon juice, and iron rods insulated with bitumen. The chemical reaction of the solution and the copper metal produces a slight electric current and is transmitted through an iron rod. It is possible that this device was used for electrical plating of jewelry.
In 1938, the German archaeologist Wilhelm Koenik and his colleagues found tools near Ctesiphon, the Parthian capital of Iran. After examination, it turned out that these tools are electric cells, which were made and used in the Parthian period of Iran. He called these Ctesiphon batteries party batteries, which are now known by other names such as Partian batteries or Parthian batteries. He published this in an article describing the device as an ancient battery used to electroplate and transfer a layer of gold or silver from surface to surface.
This discovery related to the historical period of the Parthian dynasty is somewhat surprising. Some European and American scientists have even attributed these batteries to extraterrestrial beings, and considered it beyond the knowledge of thinkers and researchers of the time. It was unacceptable to him that the knowledge of the Iranians in 1500 years before the Italian Galois (1786 AD) who invented the electric cell was so high.
Most likely, the inhabitants of Mesopotamia generated electricity from these electric cages and used it to plaster ornaments. But in the maritime area of ​​the Middle East, this invention was used to plaster iron tools on ships and to prevent them from rusting and destroying them.
This theory was later tested by other scientists. General Electric Electric Engineer Willard Gray of Massachusetts decided to rebuild a Baghdad battery after reading a Koenig article. He filled the earthenware jar with grape juice, vinegar, or a solution of copper sulfate, and produced a voltage of about 1.5 to 2 volts. Later, in 1978, Dr. Egbrecht, a famous Egyptologist, reconstructed a sample of Baghdad batteries, filled them with grape juice, and was able to generate a voltage of 0.87 volts. He used these cells to gild a silver statue. Further examples of these ancient batteries were made in 1999 by students of Dr. Marjorie Senechal, Professor of Mathematics and History of Science at Smith College, Massachusetts. They were able to generate a voltage of 1.1 volts by filling the jar with vinegar. "In addition to the theory of using these batteries for the electroplating of metals, other theories have been proposed for medical use or otherwise."
The first person to use the term battery was Benjamin Franklin, the inventor, scientist, and president of the United States, who in 1749 used it to describe a set of interconnected capacitors. However, the original inventor of the battery and the person who invented the first real battery was the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta. In 1800, he succeeded in generating a stable electric current from two circular disks of copper and zinc separated by a cloth soaked in salt water. Each cell of the battery, which consisted of a dual set of zinc and copper disks and brine, produced a current of 0.76 volts. It should be noted that Volta's inspiration for the invention of the battery was the experiment of the Italian Luigi Galvani. In 1791, during a study at the University of Bologna, he discovered that frog muscles change slightly when they touch metal objects. This phenomenon, later called "Animal Electricity", attracted Volta's attention, and he conducted further experiments and used various metals such as lead, tin and iron for positive plates and copper, silver and graphite for negative plates. In 1800 he succeeded in generating a stable electric current.
Today, batteries are produced in a variety of sizes, from a miniature battery used in electronic watches to large megawatts on solar farms and to power villages and remote areas. Given the slope of advances in battery-related technologies, it is predicted that a stunning leap forward will soon occur in this field, creating significant changes in the type and lifestyle of human beings.